Keruing Hardwood

Species: Keruing / Apitong 

Family: Dipterocarpaceae

Other Names: Eng (Burma, Yang (Thailand), Keroeing (Indonesia), Apitong (Philippines), Asian Mahogany (US).

Distribution: Widely scattered throughout Indo-Malaysian region; large number found in Malaysia, hence common Malaysian name: Keruing.

Habitat: Especially dominant species of lowland primary forest, but also common in mixed, and hill Dipterocarp forests.

The Tree: Reaches heights of over 100-200 feet (25-45 meters). Diameters of up to 3-6 feet (.75 – 1.5 meters). Usually straight, clear, cylindrical boles up to 70 feet long, above small buttresses.

Keruing Tree

Timber Properties: Classified as a medium hardwood. Heartwood varies from light red to dark brown, darkening on exposure; sapwood is distinct greyish-brown, usually 4-8 cm wide. Texture is coarse, but even and grain is usually straight. Strong resinous odor, taste and exudes resin which may be troublesome. Moderately durable and moderate resistant to preservation treatments, with similar overall properties to Teak hardwood.

Keruing TimberKeruing Timber

Working Properties: There is much variance in sawing, depending on species. Generally saws and machines well. Blunting of blades common due to silica content. Sometimes difficult to glue and resin may interfere with finishes, Teak oil recommended.

Uses: Generally used in construction such as furniture, beams, rafters, flooring, decking, and bridges. Exterior uses should be treated with a Teak oil preservative.

Keruing GrainKeruing GrainProduction & Trade: By volume the largest export wood, by volume, in Peninsula Malaysia, and one of the largest in Sabah, Sarawak, and Indonesia. Keruing is price relatively high compared to other export species.

Conservation Status: In general, Dipterocarpus spp. are still abundant throughout the region. FAO does not list it as threatened or endangered but calls on countries to urgently continue work in collection of species, in situ and ex situ conservation.

Color: Pink-brown to dark brown, sometimes with a purple tint.

Weight: Between 690-960 kg/m 3 (40-60 lb/ft3)

Average 740 kg/m3 (46 lb/ft3)

D. tuberculatus weighs 880 kg/m3 (55 lb/ft3)

Specific Gravity: Average .74 and .88 respectively.

Mechanical Properties:

• Bending strength – High

• Crushing strengths – High

• Stiffness – High

• Resistance to shock loads – Medium

Keruing TimberKeruing Timber

Seasoning: These timbers dry slowly and are difficult to dry uniformly from the center outwards in thick stock or quartered stock. Distortion, especially cupping, is rare & slight. There is little shrinkage in drying and large movement in service.

Working properties: These vary according to species but blunting is from moderate to severe when the woos also contains silica. Tungsten carbide saws are advised. Straight grain stock machines cleanly but with a fibrous finish. Planing requires a reduced cutting angle of 20 degrees on interlocked grain. Resin adhering to tools, machines, and fences can be troublesome. Nailing is satisfactory and gluing results are variable. The timbers stain well, but varnishing or polishing require care due to the stain.

Durability: Moderate. Similar to Tectona (Teak).

Keruing Log

Keruing Log


• Wharf & ship decking

• Bridges

• Flooring in homes and public buildings

• Vehicle building

• Sills

• Wagon sides and floors

• Exterior joinery

• Outdoor furniture


Oldfield, Sara. 1991. Pre-project Study on the Conservation Status of Tropical Timbers in Trade.

Prepared by World Conservation Monitoring Center for ITTO.

SDA. 1984 Tropical Timbers of the World. USDA Forest Service, Agricultural Handbook # 607.

Brown, W.H. 1978. Timbers of the World, # 4 – South East Asia. Timber Research and Development Association, England.

Sabah Marketing Corporation (SAMA) & Sabah Forestry Department. no date provided. Sabah Timbers of Commercial Importance. SAMA & Sabah Forestry Dept.

Family: Dipterocarpaceae

Anispotera leavis
mersawa durian
Malaya, Sumatra & Borneo. Most common of genera widely distributed between 300 & 900 m. Vulnerable, due to logging & habitat loss; small smooth leaf, sparse reddish scales on lower surface. Planted 6/07.
Anisoptera marginata
mersawa paya
E Sumatra, Malaya, Borneo. In Malaya near coastal peat swamp forest of S Perak, Selangor, Pahang, and Johor. Critically endangered by land conversion. Smooth leaves, bright yellow under. 1 fr TH 11/09
Anisoptera marginata leaf. Anisoptera marginata.
Anispotera scaphula
mersawa gajah
South from Chittagong; most common in north of Malaya but found as far south as NS. Favours low altitudes and deep gorges, now endangered through range. Large thin glabrous leaf. Very large trees, up to 9m girth. Planted 6/07.
Anisoptera sp.
Small genus of about 14 species, 7 in Malay peninsula. Most have distinctive leaf: prominent looped marginal vein. High silica content of wood makes sawing difficult. Large buttresses were frequently cut to make pans for tin washing.
Dipterocarpus baudii
keruing bulu
Indo China, Burma, Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra. In every state, but rare, used to be comparatively abundant in Sungai Buloh. Rapid early growth, girth of 3′ in 20 years. Prefers low lying but well drained forest.

Dipterocarpus chartaceus
keruing kertas
From Thailand to Johor, but rare, generally in low coastal locations. Crisp papery dead leaf. Twigs are terminated by buds protected by sheathing stipules that fall to reveal a young folded leaf and another expanding bud beneath.

Dipterocarpus cornutus
keruing gombang
Malaya & Borneo. Rare over large areas, but common in parts of Perak, Ulu Selangor, K. Pilah, w. Pahang and w. Johor. Conspicuous crown of large light coloured leaves. Twigs and buds covered with velvety tomentum. Leaves oblong, 20 x 12 cm, with c. 20 prs nerves, ridges between.
Dipterocarpus costulatus
keruing kipas

All states Malaya, Sumatra, N. Borneo. On low lying flood prone land, & on hills. Endangered. Leathery, glabrous, ridged leaf acute at the base. Grey bole, bark studded with lenticles, stipules to 16 cm, tomentose, pastel pink. Planted 6/07.
Dipterocarpus crinitus Dyer
keruing mempalas
Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo; these from Labis FR, Johor. Prefers low drained land, now vulnerable, small population at Pasoh. Small harshly hairy oval leaf. Stipules up to 5 x 2.5 cm, boat shaped, smooth or w/deciduous hairs, pink when fresh. Viable fruits rare, excessively insect predated. 

Dipterocarpus crinitus stipule. Dipterocarpus crinitus sapling.

Dipterocarpus crinitus. 

Dipterocarpus crinitus stipule.

Dipterocarpus dyeri
keruing etoi, keruing daun besar
From Cochin, China,Thailand, Burma to north Malay peninsula, in Perlis & north Kedah only, at low elevations, critically endangered. Coarse twigs, slender petioles, many nerved leaves, base cordate. 


Dipterocarpus elongatus
keruing latek
Malaya, NE Sumatra, N Borneo. Usually in low lying forest, near swamps or on flood prone land, critically endangered by land conversion. Large many nerved leaves, & large wingless fruits. 



Dipterocarpus gracilis
keruing kesat
Chittagong, Andamans, Vietnam, Malaya, Java, Sumatra, Philippines. Endangered. Grey bole w/reddish patches where scales have fallen; finely lenticillated bark. Leaves 15 x 8 cm, 14 -18 nerved. Planted 6/07. 


Stipule of dipterocarpus gracilis.

Dipterocarpus grandiflorus
keruing belimbing
From Andamans to Philippines; widespread in Malaya. Name from calyx tube like belimbing. Bole light yellow, scaly, with smooth lenticellate portions. Stipules v. large before falling, 18 x 5 cm, purple pink when fresh. Fruits among the largest of the genus. Young leaves of saplings dark purple. Planted 6/07. 


Stipule of Dipterocarpus grandiflorus.

Dipterocarpus kunstleri
keruing gombang merah

Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo, Philippines. Lowlands, now endangered. Twigs w/broad stipular collars, large glabrous leaves. Young boles marked w/horizontal furrows, older yellowish bark studded w/diffuse, medium lenticels. Linear stipules. Leaves broad ovate or elliptic, 22 x 15 cm, 15 nerved, petioles 5-7 cm, black, glabrous. Planted 6/07.
Dryobalanops aromatica
Sumatra, Rhiau, Borneo. In Malaya confined to northern east coast, except for small important area near Rawang. Distinguished by aromatic crushed leaf, wood resistant to fugal attack.
Dryobalanops oblongifolia Dyer
Malaya, e Sumatra, w & centr Borneo, seasonally flooded forest, but absent in deep peat. Used to build boats. Vulnerable due to habitat loss. Large canopy trees, bark closely studded w/small lenticels, heavy wingless fruits. Seed c 2.5 cm enclosed at base by 5-lobed calyx tube. 

2 new speciments June 2008, pictured below right.

Dryobalanops oblongifolia. 

Dryobalanops oblongifolia.

Hopea auriculata Foxw.
Rare endemic fr Panti, Johor & G. Tapis, Pahang. Lanceolate few nerved leaf w/ almost invisible tertiary venation, and auriculate fruit, 2 winged, 7×1.5cm. Small trees, smooth bark.
Hopea bilitonensis Ashton
no recorded local name
Banka, Bilitung, once on Perak limestone. Long, narrow, equal-based leaves w/remotely tertiary scalariform nerves. Winged ovate fruits, 1 cm w/short point, sepals narrowly winged at base, 2 longer and 3 shorter than nut.
Hopea bilitonensis.
Hopea dryobalanoides
mata kuching hitam

Sumatra, Borneo, Malaya (Kedah, Perak, Sel, NS, Pahang). Endangered. Thin elliptic to oblong lanceolate dryobalanoid leaves. Small trees, adventitious aerial roots; tear-like stalactitic exudations of pale damar. Planted 6/07.
Hopea ferruginea.Hopea ferruginea Parjis
mata kucing merah, merawan jangkung
Malaya, Sumatra, Riau, Borneo; Melaka, NS, Johor, on low undulating land. Habitat loss now endangered. Buttresses sharp, stilt roots, bark cracked w/clear dammar.
Hopea ferruginea.
Hopea mengarawan
merawan penak, pengarawan jangkang

Sumatra, Malaya, Borneo. East coast & south peninsula. On low, often swampy land. Often stilt-rooted, jangkang. Endangered, habitat loss, small stipules, reversing curve before falling. Large leathery, many veined leaves; fruits 2 winged. 1 fr TH 11.09
Hopea nervosa leaf.New.Hopea nervosa
merawan jangkang

Borneo & Malaya. Endangered by habitat loss, all states. Smooth barked Hopea up to 2.5m girth. Large oblong leaves w prominent main nerves; large fruits, 2 winged to 10cm; jangkang prominent stilt roots. 1 fr TH 11.09.
Hopea nervosa. Hopea nervosa leaf. 


Hopea nutans
Trenggqanu, Pahang, Johor, sometimes in gregarious and rich stands. Timber very hard heavy and durable, hence greatly depleted.
Hopea odorata
chengal pasir
Indo-China, Burma, Siam, Andaman Is. and north Malaya. Rarely far from streams. Identified by pore-like domatia in leaf axils. Flower petals pale yellow, fruits 2 winged; nut ovate conical. Timber: merawan, commercial in Burma & Siam.

Hopea pubescens
merawan bunga
Endemic to Kelantan and Pahang on flat drained land & low hills. Fissured bark, pubescent twigs and small leaves (sparsely hairy on midrib that is sunk on upper surface). Fruit 2 wings only 2cm long, v. small nut.
Hopea sangal

Thailand, Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo, islands of Sunda shelf. Typically near rivers. In extreme north its place is taken by closely related and very similar H. odorata (cengal pasir). Vulnerable because of lowland habitat. Planted 6/07.
Hopea subalata
merawan kancing
Endemic to Kancing FR Selangor. Thin oval ovate, caudate-acuminate subdyrobalanoid leaves and almost wingless fruits.  Small smooth barked Hopea to 1m girth, buttresses stilted, w/ adventitious stilt roots, bole straight but not tall.
Neobalanocarus heimii
Endemic Malay peninsula. V. large trees, bole with short buttresses, dark bark with irregular fissures becoming scaly in older trees. Produces the primary timber of Malaya. Seeds heavy & wingless fall just beneath parent tree.
Parashorea densiflora
meranti pasir

Endemic to southern half of peninsula. Scattered in undulating or hilly forests up to 450m. Now endangered, perhaps critically, by land conversion. Small hairly leaves, and globose fruits with reflexed calyx lobes. Med to lg trees, up to 4m girth; crown heavy dark coloured. 


Shorea acuminata fruiting.Shorea acuminata
meranti rambai daun
Southern half of Malay peninsula, most abundant in hilly country about 330m. Drooping branchlets, large semi-persistent stipules, unequal sided leaves and purple-red flowers. Grey to reddish bole, rough irregular fissured bark. 

Although greatly reduced by forest conversion, this species is not currently at risk. A specimen planted in 1997 at Rimbun Dahan fruited sparsely in Sept 2009.



Shorea assamica Dyer subspecies globifera (Ridl.) Sym
meranti pipit (meranti pa’ang) group
From NW India through to Malaya, Sumatra, Philippines, Borneo, Sulawesi, Maluku. Several geographical races are distinct botanical forms, that of Malaya and Sumatra is the form globifera. Comon in north, not found in Selangor. Leaves oval elliptic, 7 x 3cm, 17 nerved.
Shorea balanocarpoides.Shorea balanocarpoides Sym.
damar katup (meranti damar hitam)
N Sumatra, w Borneo, Malaya; from Kedah to Kinta; Kelantan & Terengganu. On undulating low land, endangered by logging, habitat conversion. Large oval 7 nerved leaves, heavy crowns, fruits wingless.
Shorea balanocarpoides stipule.
Shorea bentongensis
meranti mengkai
(meranti pa’ang group)
Endemic sp. found in Ulu Gombak, Bentong, Rompin, NE & S Johor, on low land, deep valleys, endangered by habitat loss. Large trees with smooth bole like sepetir (Sindoraspp.), leaves elliptic, c. 15 nerved, large fruit w/ short narrow wings, 3 outer 2 inner. Planted 6/07. 

2 new specimens June 2008, pictured below.

Shorea bentongensis stipule. Shorea bentongensis.

Shorea bentongensis 

Shorea bentongensis leaves.

Shorea curtisii
Malaya, from Pattani to Singapore. common and characteristic species of hill dipterocarp forests. Light coloured crowns, lanceolate, glaucescent leaves (pale waxy bloom on upper leaf surface, lower surface pale yellow glaucescent). Large trees to 3m girth, record 7m. Dark red meranti.
Shorea dasyphylla.Shorea dasyphylla
meranti batu
(red meranti group)
Malaya, eastern Sumatra, Sarawak. Favours low but well drained forest, now (critically?) endangered by land conversion & logging. Leaves ovate lanceolate to elliptic oblong, 11 x 6 cm, variable, 13 nerved, softly tomentose under. Planted 6/07.
Shorea dasyphylla.
Shorea faguetiana
damar siput
(meranti damar hitam group)
Borneo, Malaya. Widely distributed, large tree. Leaves curl up on ground, ovate-lanceolate, 8 x 3 cm, 10 nerved, glabrous, petiole 12 mm, young expanding leaves dark red.
Shorea foxworthyi
balau bukit
Endemic species, throughout the peninsula except south of Ulu Selangor on west coast, on undulating land up to 2,000 feet. 


Shorea gibbosa leaves.New.Shorea gibbosa
damar hitam gajah

Malaya, SE Sumatra, Borneo. Malaya only in central & s Johor, Singapore. Pale silvery brown striated dried twigs and larger fruits distinguish it from S. faguetiana, v similar. Larger than damar hitam (S. multiflora). 1 from TH 11/09.
Shorea gibbosa.
Shorea gratissima.Shorea gratissima Dyer
meranti laut
Peninsula, w Sumatra, Borneo, Singapore. Bukit Jugra. Sm ovate-lanceloate smooth leaf. Girth >3m, short buttresses. 1cm flowers, short stalked fruit, small nut ovate-oblong with short sharp point, 3 outer, 2 inner wings.
Shorea guiso
(balau group)
From China to Malaya, Sumatra, Philippines, Borneo. Endangered. Small, thin 16 nerved leaves, 9 x 4 cm. Leaves larger on saplings than on mature trees. Planted 6/07. 

Shorea guiso stipule.

Shorea guiso sapling. Shorea guiso leaves.
Shorea guiso leaves.
Shorea gratissima Dyer
meranti laut

Peninsula, w Sumatra, Borneo, Singapore. Bukit Jugra. Sm ovate-lanceloate smooth leaf. Girth >3m, short buttresses. 1cm flowers, short stalked fruit, small nut ovate-oblong with short sharp point, 3 outer, 2 inner wings. 2 planted 6.08.
Shorea gratissima.
Shorea hemsleyana
chengal pasir daun besar
Malay peninsula and Sarawak, especially in swampy land on lower Perak. Common in Ijok and Parit. Timber worked in Parit sawmill, but not plentiful.

Shorea henryana
meranti jerit (scream) 

From south lower Burma, S Laos and Vietnam, and SE peninsular Thailand to Perlis, north Kedah and Langkawi. Yellow crown, ovate lanceolate leaves glaucous or pink under, rusty pink twigs. Timber hardest, heaviest, most difficult to saw. 2 planted 8/08.

Shorea henryana.
Shorea hopeifolia
damar siput jantan
Borneo, Sumatra, Malay peninsula, but not Selangor; near streams. Large winged fruit, 3 outer wings (5cm x 1 cm), 2 inner wings (3cm x .5cm), all red when mature. 


Shorea hypochra
meranti temak
(meranti pa’ang group)
Cambodia, S. China, Thailand, Riau, Lingga, Malaya. Usually in low swampy forest. Endangered. Large oval to elliptic-oblong leathery leaves. Planted 6/07.

Stipule of Shorea hypochra.

Shorea leavis
Malaya and Borneo, particularly in inland ranges of N.S. , Selangor, Pahang. Very characteristic tree of hill Dipterocarp forest between 300 and 500 m., frequently in association with seraya (S. curtisii). Fresh leaves bright yellow midrib.
Shorea lepidota
meranti langgong
Sumatra and Malaya, except Perlis, Kelantan, Selangor, usually on low land. Deeply fissured bark (mature), thin oblong glabrescent leaves, & saplings with persistent falcate stipules and downy twigs.
Shorea leprosula Miq
meranti tembaga
, red meranti group of Shorea
Throughout the peninsula, Sumatra, Borneo. Used to be common on well drained lowland soils and the most abundant form of meranti; now much reduced but still common in protected areas, regenerates vigorously. 11 planted inside front fence in 1989, now (Jan 08) the largest has a DBH of 158 cm, 62″. Yellowish brown crown. Leaves elliptical, short blunt acuminate; about 15 nerved, yellow tomentose on lower surface. Twigs hairy. 

1 new specimen June 2008, pictured below.

Shorea leprosula.


Shorea longisperma
meranti damar hitam
(meranti damar hitam group)
E. Sumatra, Borneo, Malaya (mainly S). In undulating & low forest, up to 300m. Rare scattered tree; once locally common in parts of Selangor, now critically endangered. V. large trees, fallen leaves curled up, reddish brown on upper, pale and hairy on lower. 13 nerved, petiole 12mm coarsely stellate hairy. Planted 6/07.
Shorea macrantha Brandis
kepong hantu, cengal/meranti pasir

Sumatra, Sarawak, Malaya (lower Sg Perak, E Pahang & Johor). Swampy areas, critically endangered by land conversion. Drooping branchlets; unequal sided leaves, tomentose; large wingless fruits. 

New specimen June 2008 pictured below.

Shorea macrantha stipule. Shorea macrantha.

Shorea macrantha. 

Shorea macrantha stipule.

Shorea macroptera
(red meranti group)
Malaya, Sumatra, west Borneo. In low lying well drained forest, to 900m. Frequently assoc with seraya (S. curtisii). Leaves obovate oblong, 13 x 5 cm, variable, frequently folded along midrib, 15 nerved, drying dull yellow brown. Planted 6/07.
Canopy of Shorea materialis.Shorea materialis
balau pasir
Endemic species limited to east coasts of Pahang, Johor and possibly Trengganu. Name refers to sandy habitat on river banks. Broad ovate, glaucous, leathery leaves, prefers low flat land, but largely logged from accessible areas.
Group of Shorea materialis.
Shorea maxima
meranti sengkawang putih
(meranti damar hitam group)
Endemic Perak, S Pahang, & Kelantan. Once common in T. Malim on low hills. Endangered but conserved in parks. Dense crown w/twisted branches, large flowers, large wingless fruits. Small girth, rarely 2m. Leaves oblong lanceolate, 16 x 6cm, 9 nerved. Planted 6/07.
Shorea maxwelliana
damar laut daun kecil
Essentially Malaya, sometimes in Borneo. Prefers well drained positions to 700m, more common on low ridges. Small elliptic/ovate-lanceolate leaves, faintly nerved and usually glaucous under. 



Shorea multiflora
damar hitam
Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo. Often on ridges in association with seraya (S. curtisii) & kumus (S. leavis). Small leaves dry light, golden brown under; small wingless fruits. Understorey tree.

Shorea ochrophloia
seraya batu
(balau group)
Endemic, all states of Malaya, sporadically on low well drained land & hills up to 300m. Once common, now critically endangered. Yellow grey bole, large trees, girth up to 3m, short buttresses, crown large, heavy, dark coloured. Leaves ovate to elliptic-ovate, 7 x 5cm, 15 nerved. Planted 6/07.
Shorea ovalis
Malaya, Sumatra, Borneo. A common meranti in lowland forest, favouring lowland and stream side. Boat shaped scabrid leaves, hairy twigs, semi-persistent triangular stipules. One of the largest and tallest trees, often >4m girth (2m in 45 yrs?), sharp buttresses. Light red meranti timber.

New.Shorea ovata
meranti sarang punai bukit

Malaya, w Sumatra, Borneo, Mindanao. Rarely found outside preferred habitat 600-1300m asl. Oblong hairy stipules to 13mm. Slow growth cf other dark red merantis. 1 from TH 11/09.
Shorea ovata. 

Shorea ovata.

Shorea parvifolia
meranti sarang punai
Widely distributed, up to 800m, but generally most at 500m. Frequently the most abundant species of Shorea present in any forest. Semi persistent triangular stipules.

Shorea pauciflora
Malaya, Sumatra, N. Borneo. Low but well drained habitat, up to 700m. Common in Ijok FR, Perak. Scaly bole, purplish brown dried leaves, inconspicuous tertiary nerves.
Shorea platycarpa
meranti paya
(red meranti group)
Malaya, E. Sumatra. Edges of swamp forests from coastal Perak & Trengganu to Singapore. Locally abundant in Parit. Endangered. Coarsely fissured bark, dark coloured crown, & broad scabrid or tomentose leaves. Elliptic, 17 nerved.
Shorea resinosa.Shorea resinosa
meranti belang
(meranti pa’ang group)
Sumatra, Malaya, W Sarawak. Wide range but rare, on undulating hills blw 500m. Critically endangered by habitat loss. Elliptic lanceolate smooth leaf 10 x 4 cm with 13 nerves prominently yellow against darker under surface of dried leaf. Large trees, over 3m girth, no buttresses. Planted 6/07. 

Shorea resinosa.2 new specimens June 2008, pictured to the right.


Shorea resinosa stipule.

Shorea roxburghii
meranti pa’ang group of Shorea
From India (deciduous) to Malaya, very adaptable, north of the Malaya-Burma floristic division. Characteristic of Schima-bamboo forest in Perlis and Kedah. Thick bark, oblong thin, long petioled leaves. Tolerates drought and fire. Formerly S. talura.
Shorea singkawang
meranti sengkawang
(red meranti group)
Malaya, Lingga, E. Sumatra. In lowland forest from Kedah & Kelantan to Johor. Usually on well drained land up to 400m. Not common. Large purple brown dead leaves, elliptic 20 x 8cm, 13 nerved; large fruits almost wingless. Planted 6/07. 


Shorea singkawang var. scabrosa.Shorea singkawang var. scabrosa
meranti sengkawang (red meranti)
Malaya, Lingga, e Sumatra. This sub sp (13 nerved leaf) only in E Terengganu & Pahang, rare, critically endangered. Large purple dead leaves (elliptic oblong 20cm).
Shorea singkawang var. scabrosa stipule.
Shorea sumatrana
sengkawang (balau
Sumatra, Malay peninsula, generally on the east coast. Frequently in low lying swampy habitats along the banks of rivers. Critically endangered by population fragmentation and habitat destruction. Twigs glabrous, leaves elliptic-oblong with about 10 pairs of nerves sharply prominent on undersurface. Fruits have reduced wings, adapted for water dispersal. This was one of the first Dipterocarps planted at Rimbun Dahan in 1990, and the single specimen has a girth of 90 cm (2008). The revised edition of Symington notes a much slower growth rate, to 60 cm in 19 years. 

This specimen was felled by a freak gust of wind, 12 Nov 2009. Seedlings propagated from it will be planted at Rimbun Dahan.

Shorea sumatrana branch in flower.

Shorea sumatrana flower.


Shorea sp.
Seed from Johor.  Undescribed species.
Shorea sp.
Shorea sp. 

(At old fountain)

Shorea sp. 

(Front fountain)

Shorea sp.
Vatica havilandii stipule.Vatica havilandii Brandis
resak degung
N. Borneo, Malaya: Parit FR. Prefers low forest, critically endangered, close to extinction in Malaya. Obovate-oblong leaf sharp at apex, rounded at base but variable. Dries papery dark purple. Nut globose.
Vatica havilandii.
Vatica lobata.New.Vatica lobata
resak paya

Endemic sp from Sg Paka, Trengganu. Swampy land near streams, now critically endangered if not extinct due to conversion of habitat to estate. Obovate leaf with only 5 prs nerves. 1 fr TH 11/09.
Vatica lobata. Vatica lobata.
Vatica nitens King
resak daun panjang
Malay peninsula and NW Borneo. From Penang and s. Kedah to Panti, s. Johor. Common in northern Selangor but not abundant anywhere. Vulnerable to logging and forest conversion. Large oblong leaves, bole up to 3m girth.
Vatica stapfiana (King) Sloot
resak mempening, resak laru
Malaya and Sumatra. Not uncommon in Selangor, Perak, Pahang, often in valleys, near streams. Rarely exceeds 1m girth, exudations of yellow dammar. Fruits resemble acorns of Quercus, mempening.
New.Vatica yeechongii
Endemic sp from Sg Lalang FR Selangor, first described in 2002, on slope not far from Saraca stream. V large leaves, 40cm long, billowed between at least 28 prs nerves, short stout petiole and stout twigs. 1 fr TH 11/09
Vatica yeechongii.


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